Step 1: Designation phase
The German competition authority must first designate a firm as having paramount significance across markets based on qualitative criteria.
Step 2: Compliance phase
The German competition authority can prevent designated firms from behaving in a certain way based on a list of interdictions. Designated firms can prove that their behaviours have positive effects by bringing objective justifications.
Source: Christophe Carugati (last updated October 2023).